TimeLine of Zionism, Israeli and Palestinian History and the Conflict 

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TimeLine (Chronology) of Zionism, Israeli and Palestinian History and the Conflict

These timelines are intended to give you an overview and reference points for major events. Links to historical sources, Photo Gallery of Zionist History and the history of Zionism and the Creation of Israel will help round out the picture. Additional information (off site): Brief History of Israel and Palestine and Labor Zionism

Concise Overview of Recent Events in Zionism and Israeli-Palestinian History

Detailed Timeline of Zionism, Jewish History of Israel and the Palestinian-Israeli Conflict

1843 First Zionist writings of Rabbi Alcalay and of Rabbi Kalischer, Emuna Yeshara.
1844 First census in Jerusalem shows 7120 Jews, 5760 Muslims, 3390 Christians.
1856 Ottoman reforms (Tanzimat) - including requirement to register ownership of land in Palestine and pay taxes on it.
1860 First Jewish settlement (Mishkenot Sha'ananim) outside Jerusalem walls.
1878 First Zionist Settlement - Petah Tikwa.
1870s Formation of 'Hovevei Tziyon in Russia
1882 Leon Pinsker writes Auto-Emancipation in 1882; formation of Bilu; beginning of the First Aliya (wave of immigration).
1897 First Zionist Congress in Basle, Switzerland.
Nov 2, 1917 British issued the Balfour Declaration, v promising a “National Home” for the Jews in Palestine.
1936-1939 Arab Revolt led by Haj Amin Al-Husseini. Over 5,000 Arabs were killed according to some sources, mostly by British. Several hundred Jews were killed by Arabs. Husseini fled to Iraq and then to Nazi Germany. British White Paper (1939) severely restricts Jewish immigration.
May 9, 1942 Biltmore Program - Zionist leaders, headed by Chaim Weizmann and David Ben-Gurion, convene at the Biltmore Hotel in New York and set their postwar program (known as the Biltmore Program). The program recommended an end to the British Mandate and demand Jewish control over immigration to Palestine with the aim of founding a Jewish "Commonwealth."
May 15, 1948 Israel War of Independence (1948 War). Declaration of Israel as the Jewish State; British leave Palestine; Egypt, Syria, Iraq, Lebanon, Jordan, Saudi Arabia declared war on Israel. Egyptian, Syrian and Jordanian invasion began.
April 3, 1949 Armistice - Israel and Arab states agree to armistice. Israel gained about 50% more territory than was originally allotted to it by the UN Partition Plan.
Oct. 29, 1956 Suez Campaign. In retaliation for a series of escalating border raids as well as the closure of the straits of Tiran and Suez canal to Israeli shipping, and to prevent Egyptian use of newly acquired Soviet arms in a war, Israel invades the Sinai peninsula and occupies it for several months, with French and British collaboration.
May, 1964 PLO (Palestine Liberation Organization) founded with the aim of destroying Israel. The Palestinian National Charter (1968) officially called for liquidation of Israel.
May, 1967 Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser closes the straits of Tiran to Israeli shipping and dismisses UN peacekeeping force. Negotiations with US to reopen the Straits of Tiran fail.
June 5-11,1967 6-day war. Israel destroys the Egyptian air force on the ground, conquers and occupies Sinai and Gaza, then conquers the West Bank from Jordan, and Golan Heights from Syria. UN resolution 242 called for Israeli withdrawal, establishment of peace.
Oct. 6, 1973 Yom Kippur War (October War). In a surprise attack on the Jewish day of atonement, Egypt retook the Suez canal and a narrow zone on the other side. Syria reconquered the Golan Heights. Following massive US and Soviet resupplying of the sides, Israel succeeded in pushing back the Syrians and threatening Damascus. Ariel Sharon crossed the Suez Canal and cut off the Egyptian Third Army.
March 26, 1979 Peace treaty signed between Egypt and Israel.
June 7, 1981 Israel destroys Iraqi nuclear reactor in daring raid.
Oct. 6, 1981 Egyptian President Anwar Sadat is assassinated while on the reviewing stand of a victory parade.
June 6, 1982 Massive Israeli invasion of Lebanon to fight PLO.
Sept. 13, 1993 Oslo Declaration of Principles - Israel and PLO agree to mutual recognition.
Sept 28, 1995Oslo Interim Agreement signed. Palestinian Authority to be established.
Nov. 4, 1995 Israeli PM Yitzhak Rabin assassinated by right-wing Israeli fanatic Yigal Amir. Rabin is replaced by Shimon Peres
June, 1996 Right-Wing Likud leader Benjamin Nethanyahu elected Prime Minister in Israel, replacing Shimon Peres.
Sept, 1996 Al-Aqsa tunnel riots - Arab sources spread the false rumor that a gate opened in an underground tunnel tourist attraction by the Israeli government, endangered the foundations of the Al-Aqsa mosque. This caused several days of rioting and numerous casualties.
Jan 18, 1997 Israel and Palestinians reach agreement on Israeli redeployment in the West-Bank city of Hebron
Oct. 1998 Wye River Plantation talks result in an agreement for Israeli redeployment and release of political prisoners and renewed Palestinian commitment to correct its violations of the Oslo accords including excess police force, illegal arms and incitement in public media and education.
May 17, 1999 Israel elects Labor party leader and Former General Ehud Barak as Prime Minister in a landslide. Barak promises rapid progress toward peace.
March, 2000 Israeli-Syrian peace negotiations fail when Hafez Assad rejects an Israeli offer relayed by US President Clinton in Geneva.
Sept. 28, 2000 Palestinians initiated riots after Israeli opposition leader Ariel Sharon visited the Temple Mount, which is also the location of the Haram as Sharif holy to Muslims.
Feb 6, 2001 Right-wing Likud leader Ariel Sharon elected Prime Minister in Israel replacing Ehud Barak and promising "peace and security."
March-April 2002 Israel conducts operation Defensive Wall in the West Bank, following a large number of Palestinian suicide attacks on civilian targets. Saudi peace initiative adopted at Beirut summit.
Jan 28, 2003 Elections in Israel give wide margin (40 seats) to right wing Likud party, returning PM Ariel Sharon for another term.
July 9, 2004 International court of Justice (ICJ) rules that the Israeli security barrier violates international law and must be torn down.
Nov 11, 2004 Palestinian Authority President Yasser Arafat dies.
Jan 9, 2005 Mahmoud Abbas elected President of the Palestinian National Authority.
Jan 10, 2005 Ariel Sharon forms unity government with Labor and United Torah Judaism parties in Israel.
 
1800? BCE Abraham migrates to Canaan according to Jewish tradition.
1300? BCE Migration and conquest of Canaan by the Philistines and Israelite tribes. Map of Canaan. 
1000? BCE Jewish conquest of Jerusalem; reign of David (maps); After the death of David's son, Solomon, the kingdom split into two: Israel in the north, Judea in Jerusalem and the south (maps). Brief History of Early Palestine in maps.
721 BCE Fall of Israel (Northern Kingdom) to Assyria
586 BCEFall of Judea (Southern Kingdom) to Babylon and destruction of the first temple
About 539 BCEFall of Babylon. Jews allowed to return to Judea. Tradition has it that Ezra and Nehemia led this return, and later rebuilt the walls of Jerusalem, but the walls were apparently not built until 100 years later.
About 519 BCE Rebuilding of the Second Temple under Persian rule.
331 BCE Alexander the Great conquers Persia. The land was subject to Egyptian rule after his death, followed by Seleucid Syrian rule.
313 BCE Ptolemy of Egypt rules Jerusalem and Judea.
170 BCE Antiochus Ephiphanes rules Judea.
166 BCE Revolt of Judah Maccabee against Syrian Hellenic dynasty; Simon. 164 - Liberation of Jerusalem. Judah is named Friend of the Roman Senate and People; Rule of the Maccabees: 166 - Judah 160 -Jonathan 143
About 61 BCE Roman conquest of Jerusalem by Pompei. Land is divided into various provinces (maps).
40 BCE Reign of Herod the Great; Herod conquered Jerusalem in 37 BCE. Herod began an extensive restoration of the temple about 20 BC
4 BCE Probable year of birth of Jesus. Jesus was crucified between 31 and 33 AD.
66-73 AD First Jewish revolt. Fall of the Jewish Second Temple to Romans in 70 AD.
133-135Second Jewish revolt under Bar - Kochba crushed. Judea renamed Palestina. Jews are banned from Jerusalem by Hadrianus Caesar.
313 Roman Emperor Constantine legalizes Christianity
614 Persians conquer Judea and Jerusalem..
628Emperor Heraclius defeats Sassanid Persians, reconquers Jerusalem..
About 638 Arab conquest of Jerusalem. (slightly earlier or later according to different sources). Caliph Omar provides the Christians of Jerusalem with a Covenant guaranteeing their protection. Land divided into the Jund of filastin, in the south (capital in Al-Lod and later in Ramlah), and the Jund of Urdunn in the north, with capital in Tiberias (Tabariyeh).
969 Fatimid conquest. Churches and synagogues of Jerusalem destroyed.
1071

Battle of Manzikert. The Byzantine emperor Romanus IV Diogenes is defeated by the Seljuk Turks, opening Asia Minor to Turkish invasion. Seljuks devastate Jerusalem.

1099 Crusaders conquer Jerusalem, slaughter most Jewish and Moslem inhabitants, expel Jews.
1141 Poet Yehuda Halevi dies in Jerusalem.
1187 Salah-ed-din (Saladin) reconquers Jerusalem
1244 Rise of the Mamlukes. Jerusalem taken by Muslims.
1260 Battle of Ayn Jalut (Nazereth) - Holagu (Mongols) defeated.
1291 Crusaders defeated at Acre and evicted from Palestine.
1517Ottoman Turkish conquest of Palestine.
1537-41 Muslim walls built around Jerusalem by Suleiman the Magnificent.
1626 - 1676 False Messiah Sabbatai Zevi.

1740

Ottoman Sultan invites Rabbi Haim Abulafia (1660-1744), Kabbalist and Rabbi of Izmir, to come to rebuild the city of Tiberias; thousands of Jews immigrate to the land in a wave of Messianic fervor, including Rabbi Moses Haim Luzzatto (1707-1746).
1799 Napoleon conquers Jaffa but retreats before Acco (Acre); 1799 - Napoleon's Proclamation of a Jewish State was stillborn, and his declaration of equal rights for Jews was repealed in part in 1806.
1831 Egyptian Conquest of Palestine area by Mehmed Ali of Egypt, who rebelled against the Ottomans. He was forced to withdraw in 1840 under pressure by European allies.
1834 Jerusalem Arab families including the Abu Ghosh clan revolt against Egyptian rule. The rebellion is eventually crushed.
1839 Tanzimat - reorganization program- is proclaimed in the Ottoman empire.
1840 Blood libel (accusation that Jews kill Christian children to use their blood for Passover Matzoth) against Damascus Jewry
1843First Zionist writings of Rabbi Alcalay and of Rabbi Kalischer, ( Emuna Yeshara, Minhat Yehuda) .
1844 First census in Jerusalem shows 7120 Jews, 5760 Muslims, 3390 Christians.
1856Ottoman reforms (Tanzimat) - including requirement to register ownership of land and pay taxes on it. Laemel school founded in Jerusalem, provides secular as well as religious education, infuriating orthodox Jews.
1860 First Jewish settlement (Mishkenot Sha'ananim) outside Jerusalem walls.
1861 The Zion Society is formed in Frankfort, Germany; Moses Hess writes "Rome and Jerusalem." Pub 1862
1870s Formation of 'Hovevei Tziyon in Russia
1878 First Zionist Settlement - Petah Tikwa; Naphtali Herz Imber writes Tikvatenu (Our Hope), later adopted as the Zionist anthem and the Israeli national anthem, Hatikvah.
1881-84 Pogroms in Russia kill tens of thousands of Jews (1881-1884). Leon Pinsker writes Auto-Emancipation in 1882; formation of Bilu; beginning of the First Aliya (wave of immigration) which lasted until 1903. The First Aliya was characterized by plantation settlements funded by the Baron de Rothschild beginning in 1883. Formation of Hibbat Tziyon federation of Hovei Tziyon in 1884, headed by Pinsker.
1890 Publicist Nathan Birnbaum coins the word Sionismus - Zionism.
1892 Railroad from Jaffa to Jerusalem. The Jerusalem railway station was to appear in the first movie newsreels of Palestine.
1893-4 In France, Captain Alfred Dreyfus, falsely charged with espionage. Ultimately he is exonerated with the help of Emile Zola, but the trial and attendant wave of antisemitism cause many Jews to rethink their commitment to assimilation. The trial and other influences led Theodor Herzl to write Die Judenstadt - The Jewish State.
1897 First Zionist Congress in Basle, Switzerland.
1901 Fifth Zionist Congress establishes the Jewish National Fund; Eliezer ben-Yehuda publishes a Hebrew newspaper, “Hashkafah" (The Outlook), supported by Baron Edmond de Rothschild.
1902 Herzl publishes Altneuland.
1903 Following the horrors of the Kishinev pogroms, Herzl proposes to substitute another country as a "night refuge" for persecuted Jews. British officials suggest El Arish and later Uganda. The idea is rejected by the Russian Jews whom Herzl wanted to help. Sixth Zionist Congress split over British offer to settle Uganda. A commission is appointed to look into the question. Eventually the British offer is withdrawn. Laemel school moved to "new" part of Jerusalem, outside the walls.
1904 Second Aliya (wave of immigration) - young socialist immigrants (1904-1914). Catalyzed by progroms and a coincidental wave of arrests in Russia preceding and following the 1905 revolution. Herzl dies. Vaad Halahshon founded to popularize Hebrew as the language of the Jews in Palestine.
1905 The seventh Zionist Congress (Basel) rules out any alternative to Palestine as the objective of the Zionism
1906 David Gruen (later Ben-Gurion) arrives in Israel; First Hebrew high school founded in Jaffa; Bezalel School of Art founded in Jerusalem by Boris Schatz.
1907 Arthur Ruppin visits Palestine, reports to Zionist organization on status of settlements and is sent to open the Palestine Bureau in 1908.
July 3 1908 The Young Turks revolt breaks out in the Ottoman empire, and is eventually led by Enver Pasha; Sultan ‘Abd al-Hamid II is forced to restore the constitution of 1876, entailing the creation of a new parliament, and indirect representative elections. ‘Abd al-Hamid is then deposed (27Apr 09), and his brother Mehmet V installed. Policies for the ‘Turkification’ of the Ottoman territories promulgated through 1909, resulting in the creation of societies promoting pan-Arab ideas,
1908 First Arabic newspaper in Haifa, al-Karmil, popularizes opposition to selling land to Zionists.
1908 The eighth Zionist congress in 1908 adopted "Synthetic Zionism" incorporating both Practical Zionism (settlement on the land) and Political Zionism (attempts to get an internationally recognized homeland. Jewish Agency brings Yemenite Jews as immigrants to provide inexpensive labor 1908-1914.
1909 Foundation of Tel Aviv (Called Ahuzat Bayit) near Jaffa; foundation of first Kibbutz - Degania (1910 according to some sources); foundation of Hashomer (the Watchman) patrol group.
1910 British archeologist Montague Parker excavates under the Haram as Sharif (temple mount). Rumors that he had found and stolen the Ark of the Covenant caused riots by Jews and Arabs.
1911 Filastin, large Arabic newspaper, launched in Jaffa.
1912 Aref el Aref, later the historian of Palestine, mandate Southern District officer and mayor of East Jerusalem, warns in Filastin that the Jews want to take over the country.
Aug 1914 Start of WW I. Foreign nationals (including Zionists with Russian citizenship) expelled from Palestine.
July 1915 Husayn-McMahon Correspondence - Britain promises independence for Arabia. Zion Mule Corps ("the Hebrew Legion) established by Yosef Trumpeldor in British Army.
May 1916 Sykes-Picot Agreement divides up Fertile Crescent between France & Britain into zones of influence, recognizing Arab independence in part of the land.
Nov 2, 1917 British issued the Balfour Declaration, promising a “National Home” for the Jews in Palestine.
Dec 1917Gen. Sir Edmund Allenby captures Jerusalem from Ottomans for the British. Col. Reginald Storrs is appointed military governor. Allenby's conquest was aided by information from the Jewish Nili underground. However, the conquest of northern Palestine is delayed for 9 more months because fresh German advances in France force Allenby to send troops back to Europe.
Apr, 1918 Zionist commission arrives in Palestine.
June, 1918 Emir Feisal and Dr. Weizmann meet near Aqaba
Nov 1918 First Muslim-Christian association formed in Jaffa to oppose the creation of a Jewish homeland. Another was formed in Jerusalem soon after. Armistice between Allies and Germany, Nov 11.
Jan. 1919 First Palestinian (Arab) Congress advocated incorporation of Palestine into greater Syria.
Jan 18, 1919 Paris Peace Conference opens - results in Treaty of Versailles, June 28, 1919. Haim Weizmann headed the Zionist delegation.
July 1919 General Syrian Congress (which included prominent Palestinians, Transjordanians, Lebanese & Syrians) held in Damascus, supporting the independence of an undivided Syria, and opposed to Zionism. Britain cedes authority over Syria to France after the congress finishes; Gen. Henri Gourand becomes High Commissioner.
28 Aug 1919 Henry King and Charles Crane, the US members of the International Commission of Inquiry, sent primarily on the initiative of President Wilson, present their report based on their visit to the region in June-July, against creation of a Jewish National home in Palestine.
1919-1922 Third Aliyah (Wave of immigration) - consisted mostly of Jews returning to Palestine from exile.
Feb - Mar 1920 Jewish settlements of Tel Hai and Metullah in N. Palestine attacked (Feb 20). Josef Trumpeldor killed in second attack at Tel Hai (March 1)
March 1920 Faysal elected and crowned king of Greater Syria at 2nd General Syrian Congress in Damascus; assembly proclaims independence from France of Greater Syria; rejects Balfour Declaration and Sykes-Picot agreement. Allies occupy Constantinople.
April, 1920 Musa Kazim al-Husayni, mayor of Jerusalem, is replaced by Raghib al-Nashashibi; clan rivalry grows.
April, 1920 "Nebi Musa" Arab riots led by Haj Amin El Husseini and Aref El Aref in Hebron and Jerusalem. Forty Six Jews Killed.
Apr 25, 1920 San Remo Conference - Supreme Allied Council assigns mandates for Mesopotamia and Palestine to Britain, and Syria and Lebanon to France.
June 1920 Haganah, Jewish Self Defense, organized by Vladimir (Ze'ev) Jabotinsky, Eliahu Golumb and others.
July 1920 Herbert Samuel named High Commissioner of Palestine. King Faisal recognizes French Mandate. French forces under Gourand retake Damascus by force with British support. Britain arrests Palestinian notables who had supported Faysal.
Dec 1920 Histadrut, the General Federation of Hebrew Workers in the Land of Israel (Histadrut Haklalit Shel Haovdim Haivriyim Be'eretz Yisrael), was formed. Remained exclusively Jewish until 1960s, when it officially dropped ‘Hebrew’ from its name (1966).
1921 12th Zionist Congress. Haim Weizmann becomes President of the ZIonist Organization. First Moshav, Nahalal, founded.
May 1921 Arab riots in Jaffa against Jewish population. Yosseff Haim Brenner killed.
May 10, 1921 Haj Amin El Husseini appointed Grand Mufti by British High Commissioner Herbert Samuel, though Husseini had been convicted of organizing riots in 1920 and had been sentenced to ten years in jail
Jan 1922 Haj Amin El Husseini appointed President of the Supreme Muslim Council.
June 3, 1922 The Churchill ("Command") White Paper notes that the Balfour declaration only promised a Jewish homeland in Palestine, and reserves East Palestine for Transjordan.
July 24, 1922 British Mandate for Palestine; Official establishment of Transjordan as a separate state; Britain, in military control of Syria, allows French forces led by Gourand to retake Damascus by force.
1922-1932 Fourth Aliya (wave of immigration)
May 25, 1923 Proclamation of Transjordanian Independence under Emir Abdullah
May 29, 1923 Palestine Constitution suspended by British after Arabs refuse to participate in the government.
July 24, 1923 Lausanne Peace Treaty signed by Greece, Turkey and the Allies
Sept 29, 1923 Palestine Mandate officially comes into force.
1924 Official inauguration of the Israel Technical Institute (Technion) in Haida
1925 Official inauguration of the Hebrew University in Jerusalem. Revisionist movement founded by Zeev Jabotinsky ;Brit Shalom (Covenant of Peace) movement founded by Martin Buber, Yehuda Magnes and others advocating a binational state.
Feb. 20, 1928Britain recognizes Transjordanian independence (subject to treaty provisions).
July 5, 1928 Sir John Chancellor becomes High Commissioner in Palestine.
August, 1929Arab riots in Hebron, Jerusalem, Safed, Haifa, Motza and elsewhere. The Jews had set up a dividing screen at the Wailing Wall in Yom Kippur of 1928 to separate men and women worshippers, prompting rumors that the Jews wanted to build a synagogue at wall, which were spread deliberately by Haj Amin El-Husseini. Amid heightening tensions, a demonstration by Jews in 1929 and Arab incitement ignited violence and rioting against Jews. Thousands of Jews fled the ancient Jewish quarter in Jerusalem. The Hebron Jewish community was evacuated after 64-67 were killed in riots.
1930 The Hope-Simpson Report recommends cessation of Jewish immigration.
Oct 21, 1930 British Passfield White Paper proposes to limit Jewish immigration to Palestine.
1931 After questions in commons and League condemnation, Ramsay MacDonald writes to Haim Weizmann Rescinding the Passfield White Paper;
1931 IZL (Irgun or Etzel - The Irgum Tzvai Leumi) formed by Jabotinsky and others who leave the Haganah.
1932-1939 Fifth Aliya (wave of immigrants) - Consisting mostly of Jews fleeing Nazi Germany and neighboring countries. Beginning in 1936, riots and administrative restrictions greatly reduced the number of immigrants. 1933 - Assassination of Chaim Arlozorov.
1936-1939 Arab Revolt led or coopted by the Al-Husseini family and Fawzi al-Kaukji and apparently financed by Axis powers. Over 5,000 Arabs were killed according to some sources; most were killed by other Arabs and by British. Eleven Arab clans were wiped out by Husseini and his men. Several hundred Jews were killed by Arabs. Husseini fled to Iraq and then to Nazi Germany. 1937- Orde Wingate forms "night squads" for Jewish self-defense. Between 1937 and 1939 Jews build 54 "stockade and watchtower" settlements to circumvent British regulations against new settlements, and bring tens of thousands of illegal immigrants into Palestine.
1937-1938 Peel and Woodhead commissions recommend partitioning Palestine into a small Jewish state and a large Arab one.
Oct. 1, 1937 British declare Higher Arab Committee in Palestine an illegal body.
Oct. 16, 1937 (approximate date) Haj Amin El-Husseini, Mufti of Jerusalem escapes to Syria and thence to Iraq.
Jan.-Mar. 1939 St James Conference - Round-table conference on Palestine in London, with Arab countries, Zionists and Palestinian representatives.
May 17, 1939 1939 White Paper limits Jewish immigration to Palestine to 75,000 in total, restricts Jewish land purchases (regulations come into effect in 1940), envisions an Arab Palestinian state. Jews found the Mossad l'aliya bet to arrange for illegal immigration.
Sept. 3, 1939 Britain and France declare war on Germany. In Palestine, soldiers are recruited for the British army. About 26,000 Jews and 6,000 Arabs join and fight with the allies.
1940 Lehi (Lochami Heruth Yisrael - Freedom fighters of Israel) underground formed by Avraham Stern ("Yair").
1941 Palmach underground established, originally with British help, as part of a force that was to fight a Nazi takeover in Syria.
Apr. 1, 1941 Agitation by exiled Palestinian Mufti Haj Amin El Husseini leads to coup. Pro-Axis Government under Rashid Ali in Iraq.
May -June, 1941 British reoccupy Habbanieh and Baghdad, Rashid Ali and pro-Axis leaders flee to Teheran and Berlin; After the revolt is suppressed, a pogrom against the Jews (Farhoud) takes place in Baghdad, while British troops stand by and refuse to intervene.. Click for details of Mufti, British Intervention and the Farhud
Nov 25, 1941 The Jewish illegal immigrant ship Patria (also called Patra) carrying refugees from Europe, detained in Haifa by the British, is blown up by the Jewish underground Hagana to prevent transshipment of the refugees to Mauritius. The explosion was supposed to cause a small leak. Instead, the ship sank and 252 people died.
Feb. 24, 1942 The Jewish illegal immigrant ship Struma, forced to sail north from Turkey, is torpedoed by a Soviet submarine (either collaborating with British or because the ship was mistaken for German shipping) and sunk with the loss of 428 men, 269 women and 70 children.
Oct. 1942 Battle of El Alamein. British under General Montgomery defeat Rommel's Afrika Korps and end the Nazi threat on Egypt and Palestine.
May 9, 1942 Biltmore Program - Zionist leaders, headed by Chaim Weizmann and David Ben-Gurion, convene at the Biltmore Hotel in New York and set their postwar program (known as the Biltmore Program). The program recommended an end to the British Mandate and demand Jewish control over immigration to Palestine with the aim of founding a Jewish "Commonwealth."
1943 Warsaw Ghetto uprising; Palmach members parachuted behind enemy lines in Europe.
1944 Jewish Brigadeis formed to fight as part of the British forces in World War II.
Oct 7, 1944 Arab leaders meet in Alexandria to discuss postwar plans for independence and ways to prevent implementation of Jewish control over Palestine.
Nov 6, 1944 Members of the Jewish Lehi underground Eliyahu Hakim and Eliyahu Bet Zuri assassinated Lord Moyne in Cairo. Moyne, a known anti-Zionist, was Minister of State for the Middle East and in charge of carrying out the terms of the 1939 White paper - preventing Jewish immigration to Palestine by force.
March 22, 1945 League of Arab States set up (Egypt, Lebanon, Iraq, Syria, Transjordan, Yemen, Saudi Arabia, with Musa ‘Alami as Arab States’ chosen representative of the Palestinians) with British approval to shift welfare responsibility onto local population and to ensure continuing Arab support. The goals of the league were as stated in the Alexandria Protocol, of which it was an outgrowth. Charter proclaims goal of achieving closer aims between Arab States and declares that Palestine is a member of the League in a special annex.
Aug, 1945 US President Truman asks British to admit 110,000 Jewish refugees to Palestine.
Sept., 1945 British limit Jewish immigration into Palestine to 1,500 a month.
Nov. 1945 Anglo American Committee of Inquiry for Palestine appointed.
Mar, 1946 British-Tranjordanian treaty; British recognize Emir Abdullah as King of Transjordan.
Apr. 1946 Report of Anglo American Committee of Inquiry published. Recommend admission of 100,000 Jews to Palestine.
June,, 1946 Haj Amin El Husseini, Mufti of Jerusalem, escapes from detention in France aided by French collaborators. Husseini was to have been deported to Germany and tried for war crimes after spending the war working for the Nazis in Germany.
July 22, 1946 Irgun Jewish underground blows up British HQ in King David Hotel, Jerusalem, killing 91 persons.
Aug, 1946 British start deporting illegal Jewish immigrants to detention camps in Cyprus.
Sept, 1946 Palestine round-table conference opens in London.
Feb. 1947 Britain refers Palestine issue to the UN
April 16, 1947 Dov Bela Gruner and three other Jews convicted of anti-British violence handed in Acre prison. Gruner was a member of the Irgun Tzvai Leumi (Etzel).
May, 1947 UN General Assembly appoints UN Special Committee on Palestine (UNSCOP ).
July 18, 1947 British rammed the Jewish illegal immigrant ship Exodus (formerly "President Warfield") on the high seas. They towed it to Haifa where it was the subject of extensive publicity, generating public sympathy for the Zionist cause. The passengers were eventually disembarked in Hamburg. The incident set world and particularly US opinion against the British, and caused the British to intern illegal immigrants thereafter in Cyprus, rather than attempting to return them to Europe.
Sept 1, 1947 UNSCOP issues its report, calling for partition of Palestine.
Nov. 29, 1947 UN Partition Resolution (GA 181) - Palestine was to be divided into a Jewish State and an Arab State; Jerusalem was to be internationalized. The resolution is supported by both the US and USSR. Arab countries and Arab league refuse to recognize the resolution.
Dec. 1, 1947 Arab riots in Jerusalem. Beginning of Arab blockade of Jerusalem. The period to May 1948 was characterized by numerous skirmishes, road ambushes, riots, bombings and massacres, whether organized by one of the other sides or spontaneous. The Haifa riots and massacres were typical. T
January 1948 Arab Salvation Army (also called Arab Liberation Army - ALA) are admitted to Palestine by the British, following a promise not to attack Jewish settlements. Their leader, Fawzi Al-Kaukji may have entered Palestine only in March. Jewish Agency concludes arms deal with Czechoslovakia, but most arms do not arrive until June 1948, after the British have left. The UN, including the US, had placed an arms embargo on Palestine. This did not apply to Arab countries including Transjordan. As independent states, they were allowed to acquire arms. The Jordan Legion received a steady supply of arms from Britain through the Suez Canal, at least until May 1948, including a large number of 25 pounder cannon at the beginning of 1948. Hagana agents purchased 20 Auster light aircraft in Britain, sold for scrap, rebuilt them and brought them to Palestine for use of the Haganah. Haganah later rebuilt Spitfires left by the mandate for scrap as well, but did not have real fighter and bomber aircraft until May 1948 when Czech Messerschmidts and B-17s purchased clandestinely were brought into the country.
January 1948 Jewish convoy to Gush Etzion, near Jerusualem, ambushed, 35 underground members massacred.
Mar. 1946Provisional Jewish government formed in Tel-Aviv. Convoy to Gush Etzion ambushed in Nebi Daniel. Arabs begin to flee Haifa.
April 6-8, 1948 Arab blockade of Jerusalem is broken temporarily by operation Nachshon. Death of Abd-El-Qader Al-Husseini at Kastel - The foremost Palestinian military leader is shot by a Jewish sentry when he wanders into Jewish held Kastel in the Jerusalem corridor thinking it is in Arab hands.
April 9, 1948 Deir Yassin Massacre - Jewish dissident underground groups - Irgun and Lehi, invade Palestinian village of Deir Yassin. Over 100 Palestinian civilians and 4 attackers are killed.
April 13, 1948 Haddassah Convoy Massacre - In retaliation for Deir Yassin, Arabs killed about 80 Jewish medical personnel and sick persons on their way to Hadassah hospital.
April 13-20, 1948 Operation Har'el launched by Hagannah at conclusion of Operation Nachshon, does not succeed in opening the road to Jerusalem.
April 1948 Arab flight from Haifa continues; Arab flight from Jaffa.
April 22-31 1948 Operation Misparayim launched by Hagannah to assume control of Haifa after British withdrawal and attacks by Arab forces and Irgun.
May 12, 1948 Haganah captures Tsfat (Safed). Arab population flees the city before it is captured.
May 13, 1948 Jaffa surrenders to Haganah.
May 14, 1948 Gush Etzion Massacre - In retaliation for Deir Yassin Massacre, Arabs killed over 50 Jewish defenders at Gush Etzion, after they had surrendered. British High Commissioner Cunningham leaves Palestine.
May 15, 1948 Israel War of Independence (1948 War). Declaration of Israel as the Jewish State, recognized immediately by USA and on May 17 by USSR. Egypt, Syria, Iraq, Lebanon, Jordan, Saudi Arabia declared war on Israel. Egyptian, Syrian and Jordanian invasion began.
May 17, 1948 Haganah captures Acco (Acre). Most of the Arab population flees the city before it is captured.
May 18, 1948 Syrian army captures Massada and Merom Hagolan.
May 28, 1948 Jewish quarter of the old city of Jerusalem falls to the Jordan Legion. The inhabitants were protected from the wrath of a lynch mob by the Legion under Abdullah Tell, and noncombatants were expelled to West Jerusalem. About 300 Haganah defenders were taken prisoner and sent to Jordan. The entire quarter including 58 of the 59 synagogues was demolished by the Arab mob despite efforts of the Legion.
June 11, 1948 First truce begins, lasting until 8 July.
June 23, 1948 Irgun’s Altalena ship brings weapons and 940 immigrants to Palestine. The arms shipment was a violation of UN embargo, but Israel government agreed to it, provided the Irgun handed over the weapons to IDF and formed a unified force. Irgun Commander Menahem Begin refused to hand over weapons and Irgun insisted on keeping a portion of the arms for its own use as a separate force. Palmach units of IDF under Yigal Allon attempted to capture weapons by force, killing 14 Irgun men. Yizhak Rabin, in command of shore batteries in Tel-Aviv, was ordered to fire upon and sink the Altalena after it attempted a landing there. According to some reports, factions of the Irgun (Etzel) were planning a coup with the arms.
June, 28, 1948 Count Folke Bernadotte's first peace plan - Jerusalem to be Arab.
July 08, 1948 Egyptian army breaks truce, due to end July 9. Attacks from neighborhood of Majdal (Ashdod). Israeli counterattack at Faluja was unsuccessful. This phase of the war is known as "the ten days," and included Mivtza Dani - the Israeli conquest of Lydda (Lod) and Ramla, breaking the Arab siege of Jerusalem, and creating thousands of refugees, as well as advances in the north. During this time Israel had acquired three B-17s and some Dakotas. One of the B-17s succeeded in dropping some bombs on Cairo on its way to delivery in Israel, others bombed Damascus and Rafa.
July 10, 1948 Arab League announced the establishment of a temporary Palestinian civilian administration over Arab held-areas of Palestine, but it was never implemented.
July 12, 1948 Egyptians attack Kibbutz Negba with armor and massive troop concentrations. Israelis suffer 5 dead, 16 wounded, Egyptian casualties 200- 300 dead and wounded.
July 19, 1948 Second truce in Palestine.
Sept 17, 1948 Swedish Count Folke Bernadotte, a UN mediator, was assassinated in Jerusalem, and Lehi members were suspected. The Israel government outlawed the organization's branch in Jerusalem and shut down its publication, Hamivrak. The leaders of Lehi, Natan Yellin-Mor and Mattityahu Shmuelevitz, were sentenced to long jail terms by a military court, but were released in a general amnesty. Bernadotte, who had been instrumental in saving about 21,000 Jews in WW II, was proposing to "relieve" Israel of the Negev and force return of the Palestinian refugees. The latter proposal was adopted in UN General Assembly Resolution 194.
Sept 22, 1948 Palestinian States - AHC communiqué announces the establishment of the Government of All Palestine (APG; Hukumat 'Umum Filastin); Declaration of Independence proclaimed by Hajj Amin to Palestine National Council in Gaza (30Sept-1Oct) on 1Oct, with Hajj Amin as President of the PNC, Ahmad Hilmi ‘Abd al-Baqi as PM, Jamal al-Husayni as Foreign Minister, in the Mandate territory of Palestine, with the flag of the 1916 Arab Revolt. Jerusalem as capital, Gaza as seat of government. Recognized and sponsored by Egypt and Arab League, who sought to forestall ‘Abdullah’s plan to annex West Bank; strongly opposed by Jordan, who organized a much larger rival Palestinian Congress in Amman on 30Sept to support Jordan’s policy in Palestine. APG issued Palestinian passports; but with Egyptian disillusionment, HQ transferred to Cairo in Oct, Hajj Amin was confined to Cairo and is & actions curtailed; many leading members left to work for Amman. Ahmad Hilmi continued to represent Palestine in the League until his death in September 63.
Oct. 15, 1948 Second truce ends; Israeli offensive breaks Egyptian siege of Israeli settlements in the Negev (operation Yoav). Beersheva is taken. In the north, operation Hiram defeats the Arab Liberation army. IDF massacres in Eilabun, Saliba, Safsaf, Jish, Hule, Majd el-Krum, Bi'na, Dier el assad and Arab al-Mawassa.
Dec. 11, 1948 UN Resolution 194 called for cessation of hostilities, return of refugees who wish to live in peace. The resolution reflected UN and US anger over the assassination of Count Bernadotte.
Dec. 1948 Israelis advance into Egypt; Nokrashy Pasha, Egyptian PM, assassinated.
Dec 19, 1948- Jan 7, 49 Israeli Operation Horev conquers Gaza and enters Sinai. Intervention by British and US forces Israel to withdraw. Israel shot down several British reconnaissance planes, apparently unarmed (four Spitfires and one Tempest) January 7, 1949.
March 7-10, 1949 Operation Uvda - IDF captures southern Negev including Eilat with no resistance.
Feb-Jun, 1949 Israel and Arab states agree to armistice in separate agreements. Israel-Egypt Israel -Lebanon Israel-Jordan  Israel-Syria) Israel gained about 50% more territory than was originally allotted to it by the UN Partition Plan. The war created about 780,000 Palestinian refugees who fled or were evicted from Jewish held areas. Gaza fell under the jurisdiction of Egypt. The West Bank of the Jordan was occupied by Jordan and later annexed, consistent with secret agreements with the Jewish leadership made before the outbreak of hostilities.
April 27 – Sept 1949 Lausanne conference - Abortive Israel Arab Truce Negotiations. Minor achievements - working recognition of Israel by Arab States who attended the conference, and acceptance of UN Resolutions by both sides. However no substantive agreements were reached.
Apr. 1950 De Jure British recognition to Israel and Greater Jordan (including West Bank).
1950 Law of Return passed. Massive immigration to Israel in 1949-1951 and imposition of rationing program. Rationing lasted until 1959. Immigration curtailed because of extreme economic problems.
July, 1951 Assassination of Jordan's King Abdulla because of rumored plans for peace with Israel. His grandson Hussein was crowned in his place following the brief reign of Tallal.
1951-1958 Israel drains the Huleh valley swamps to eradicate malaria and reclaim the land.
Jam. 18, 1953 Beginning of anti-Zionist stance in USSR. Moscow accuses "Zionist agents" of murdering Zhdanov and attempting to murder other Soviet leaders.
July 12, 1953 Shishakly becomes President of Syria.
Sept. 7, 1954 Ben-Gurion resigns as Israeli PM, succeeded by Moshe Sharett.
October 1953 IDF paratrooper unit 101 under Ariel Sharon killed 69 civilians and destroyed a great deal of property in a raid on the Jordanian village of Qibieh. The raid was a reprisal for a raid on Tirat Yehuda.
July 1954 The Lavon Affair: Israeli government spies, seemingly without PM Sharett’s knowledge, attempt to sabotage British & US property in Egypt to put blame on Egyptian terrorists, thus driving a wedge between Britain and Egypt, and postponing British evacuation of the Suez. The plan’s failure leads to the fragmentation of Mapai’s leadership, with recurring crises of mutual recrimination over the next decade. Ben Gurion insisted on a full investigation of the affair but was rebuffed by Lavon partisans. Defense Minister Pinhas Lavon resigns in Feb 1955. Egypt retaliated against Egyptian Jews, some of whom were involved in the plot.
Oct 19, 1954 Anglo-Egyptian evacuation agreement signed (troops guarding canal to leave).
Jan. 27, 1955 Military court in Cairo sentences 2 members of Israeli spy ring to death They are executed Jan 27.
Feb, 1955 Pinhas Lavon resigns as Israel defense minister and is replaced by David Ben-Gurion;
1955 Continuous incidents between Egypt and Israel/Syria, primarily in Gaza DMZ. Operation Black Arrow (Hetz Shahor) launched by Israel in Feb 1955, following Egyptian incursions, killed 38 Egyptians, resulted in a major embarrassment for Egypt and caused Nasser to rethink his strategy with Israel.
Sept 27, 1955 Egyptian-Czech arms deal. Secret clause requires Egypt to get financing of Aswan dam from USSR.
Nov. 2, 1955 Ben-Gurion replaces Sharett as Israeli PM.
Dec 11, 1955 Israel launched an attack on Syria following firing on a police patrol boat possibly sent as a deliberate provocation. (operation Olive Leaves), condemned in SCR111, 19 Jan 56,
April 5 1956 Increased tension between Israel & Egypt-Syria. IDF claimed 180 attacks on Israel from Gaza in past four months. Three Israelis killed April 4 when Egyptians opened fire on an Israeli patrol. Israel responded, and an artillery duel culminated in an Israeli artillery barrage at centre of Gaza City (4-5Apr) that killed 59, wounds about 100, mostly civilians. Egypt responded with increased commando raids, sending hundreds of fedayeen across the border in separate raids and killing 12 Israelis. Temporarily calmed through offices of UNS-G.
June 1956 Sharett resigns as Israeli FM ( dies.1965); Golda Meir takes over; Last British troops leave Suez Canal base on June 13.
July 26, 1956 The US withdraws funding from the Aswan dam, USSR steps in. In response, Nasser nationalizes the Suez Canal Company (26 Jul), to opposition of British (lease due to terminate in 1968). Is unanimously supported in this by the Arab League (Aug), though Iraqi leaders secretly call on the British to topple Nasser; imposition of martial law in Iraq. Britain, France and USA announce financial retaliation.
Aug. 16, 1956 London Conference on Suez Canal boycotted by Egypt.
Sept 10, 1956 Egypt rejects 18 nation proposals for Suez Canal.
Sept 19, 1956 Second London conference on Suez.
Sept. 23, 1956 Britain and France refer Suez dispute to UN Security Council.
Oct. 29, 1956

Suez Campaign. In retaliation for a series of escalating border raids as well as the closure of the straits of Tiran and Suez canal to Israeli shipping, and to prevent Egyptian use of newly acquired Soviet arms in a war, Israel invades the Sinai peninsula and occupies it for several months, with French and British collaboration. French and British were interested in reversing the nationalization of the canal. Israel withdraws after a UN peace keeping force is placed in Sinai, and US guarantees right of passage for Israeli shipping through the Straits of Tiran. Suez Canal reopened March 23, 1957.

1957 Fateh founded (informally) with the aim of destroying Israel. Formal establishment about 1964.
1957 (?) Construction of Israel nuclear breeder reactor using French technology begins in Dimona some time in the latter part of the 1950s. The French later tried to stop the program, but backed down when Israeli FM Peres said Israel would make the deal public. Reactor was discovered by the US in U-2 flights in 1960 or 1961.
Oct. 23, 1958 Soviet loan to Egypt to finance Aswan Dam.
Nov 18, 1959 Israel abandons earlier Jordan river diversion scheme, begins work on the National Water Carrier Project, to divert the waters of the River Jordan from the Sea of Galilee to the Negev, taking its share of Jordan water in accordance with Johnston plan.
1959(?) Yasser Arafat, Khalil al Wazir and others found the Palestine Liberation Committee, soon renamed "Fatah" (Conquest). The organization was to be modeled on the Algerian FLN.
1960 Israeli Agents capture Nazi war criminal Adolf Eichmann in Argentina and abduct him to Israel. Eichmann had order the deaths of millions of Jews as well as Romany people and other minorities.
1961 Eichmann trial is televised and seen around the world. Eichmann was executed in June, 1962.
24 June, 1963 Ben-Gurion resigns as Israeli PM, because of his frustration at being unable to get justice in the Lavon Affair.
Jan 13-17 1964 First Arab summit at Cairo (the Egyptians count this as the third Arab Summit) (ie. heads of State, instigated by Nasser), prompted by Israel’s R .Jordan diversion scheme and Palestinian agitation against it. Arabs declare their intentions of stopping the Israeli diversion scheme, which is in accordance with the Johnson plan, and decided on establishment of the PLO. A Unified Arab Command under Egyptian supervision was created. This summit and the one that followed in September caused considerable alarm in Israel, and is cited by Avi Shlaim (The Iron Wall) as the actual beginning of the 6 day war.
May, 1964 PLO (Palestine Liberation Organization) founded with the aim of destroying Israel. The Palestinian National Charter (1968) officially called for liquidation of Israel. PLO was founded by Egypt to divert Palestinian energies from the nascent Fatah movement of Yasser Arafat, which had become anti-Nasserist.
Sept 13, 1964 Second Arab Summit at Alexandria decides on diversion of the headwaters of the Jordan as well as strengthening regional Arab armies. Arabs declare the aim of destroying Israel. Israel addressed two notes to the UN Security Council, concerning the alarming nature of the summit resolutions to destroy Israel.
Sept. 18. 1965 Third Arab Summit at Casablanca. Conference draws up staged plan for combating Israel, first building up armed forces of Jordan, Syria and Lebanon over 2.5-3 yrs & refraining from war with Israel; then proceeding to war.
Nov 13, 1966 Samu' raid: Israeli troops kill 15 Jordanian soldiers and 3 civilians, & dynamite 125 houses, in an attack on the frontier village of Samu‘ near Hebron; in response to the death of 3 Israeli soldiers by a road mine. Israel is censured by SCR228 (25 Nov 66), but no military response from Amman. This leads to recriminations in the Israeli government, which had intended a smaller scale raid, and Palestinian anger & clashes with Jordanian security forces throughout West Bank, especially in Nablus where the army had to intervene. The PLO gains support.
May, 1967 Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser closes the straits of Tiran to Israeli shipping and dismisses UN peacekeeping force. Negotiations with US to reopen the Straits of Tiran fail.
May 27, 1967 Nasser cancels a planned Egyptian attack on Israel, after it became obvious that the Israelis knew about the plan.
May 30, 1967 Jordan signs a defense pact with Egypt, allows Egyptian command of Jordan Legion.
Jun 2, 1967 Moshe Dayan joins Israeli cabinet as Minister of Defense. Unity gov't formed.
June 5-11,1967 6-day war. Following a long period of tension, Israel attacks - destroys the Egyptian air force on the ground, conquers and occupies Sinai and Gaza, then conquers the West Bank from Jordan, and Golan Heights from Syria. UN resolution 242 (November 1967) called for Israeli withdrawal, establishment of peace.
Aug-Sept 1967 Khartoum Conference - Arab summit says no to peace or negotiations with Israel.
Nov 22, 1967 UN Security Council resolution 242 (November 1967) called for Israeli withdrawal, establishment of peace
Oct 21, 1967 Egyptian missile ship sinks the Israeli destroyer Eilath. Israel retaliates by heavy artillery bombardment of Suez refinery complex.
March 21, 1968 Battle of Karameh - Jordanian and Palestinian forces inflicted a partial defeat on Israel troops staging a massive retaliatory raid on a Jordanian town that had served as a staging area for guerilla attacks and a base for PLO/Fatah guerillas.. The Fatah declared a great victory and retreated into the hills. The anniversary of Karameh is still celebrated as a victory by Palestinians.
Jun 1968 Escalation along the Suez Canal. Egyptians violated the cease fire repeatedly along the Suez canal. Nasser stated as strategy that Egypt can suffer numerous casualties because of manpower reserves, while Israel cannot.
Dec 1968 PFLP attack on El Al plane in Athens. One Israeli killed; Israel responds on Dec 28 with helicopter raid on Beirut International Airport. Commandos destroy 13 Arab planes and damage airport. SCR262 of 31Dec unanimously censures Israel,
Jan 6, 1969 French ban on arms supplies made public by Israel.
Jan 27, 1969 Iraqis hang 14 (9 Jews) as Israeli spies.
Feb 1-4, 1969 Fifth Palestine National Council (PNC) in Cairo. Fatah gains formal control with Yasser Arafat declared chair of Executive Committee. PNC statement sets goal of a "secular democratic state" society for Muslims, Christians & Jews.
Feb 18, 1969 PFLP attack El Al plane in Zurich; strong international condemnation.
Feb 20, 1969 PFLP bomb attacks on a Jerusalem supermarket
Feb 24, 1969 Israeli airstrike against 2 al-Fatah camps near Damascus; large no of casualties. Fatah moves to strengthen its position in Jordan; PFLP becomes more explicit in its call for the overthrow of King Hussein, seen as a Western puppet.
Feb 1969 Internal struggles in Syrian Baa‘th party: Hafez al-Assad, defense minister, takes full control over military in Syria; civilian institutions left under the control of President Atasi. Former stressed pan-Arab cooperation, especially with Egypt; latter rejected cooperation with the conservative regimes, & controlled the Sa‘iqa fida’i organization.
Mar 11 1969 Golda Meir becomes Prime Minister in Israel after death of Levi Eshkol.
Aug 29, 1969 Group commanded by Leila Khalid hijacks TWA plane flying to Tel Aviv.
March 1969 Hostilities along the Suez canal. between Israel and Egypt escalate as Soviets supply SAM-2 radar and pilots, US supplies Israel with Phantom jets and Hawk missiles.
April, 23, 1969 War of attrition between Israel and Egypt - Nasser formally declares that he is no longer bound by the terms of the armistice. Constant artillery and air duels around the Suez canal, as well as IAF bombardment of Egyptian targets. US agreed with Israeli reports that Nasser was violating the cease fire agreement and preparing for another war.
Sept 9, 1969 Major Israeli raid on Egypt.
Oct. 22, 1969 Palestinian guerillas clash with Lebanese security forces. An agreement between al-Fatah and the Lebanese was concluded on Nov. 3.
Dec. 9, 1969 US Secretary of State William Rogers outlines US proposals for an Israeli-Egyptian peace settlement (Rogers Plan), which are rejected by both sides.
Dec 21-23 Fifth Arab summit in Rabat ends in disagreement.
July 1970 Israel-EgyptWar of attrition terminated by a cease fire, July 1970, following pressure from USA and USSR on both sides.
Sept. 1970 "Black September"- King Hussein of Jordan moves against the increasingly menacing power of the PLO. Palestinian guerillas flee Jordan and take up residence in Lebanon.
Sept 6, 1970 PFLP hijack Swissair, BOAC, PanAm and TWA flights and divert them to Jordan. 310 passengers are held hostage and released after governments agree to release Palestinian prisoners. In the wake of the hijackings Lufthansa reportedly paid protection money to guerilla movements, and France purchased immunity for Air France by agreeing to maintain an anti-Israel policy.
Sept 28 1970 Nasser dies of cardiac arrest after negotiating Jordan-Palestinian truce; Anwar al-Sadat comes to power in Egypt.
May 30, 1972 PFLP and Japanese Red Army attack at Lod Airport killed 27.
Sept 5, 1972 Black September movement massacres Israeli Olympic team in Munich, triggering a systematic manhunt by Israelis for the assassins.
Oct. 6, 1973 Yom Kippur War (October War) In a surprise attack on the Jewish day of atonement, Egypt retook the Suez canal and a narrow zone on the other side. Syria reconquered the Golan Heights. Following massive US and Soviet resupplying of the sides, Israel succeeded in pushing back the Syrians and threatening Damascus. Ariel Sharon crossed the Suez Canal and cut off the Egyptian Third Army.
Oct. 22, 1973 UN Security Council Resolution 338 called for cease fire and negotiations for peace. Following the cease fire, Israel withdrew from part of Sinai in stages, beginning with relief of the Egyptian third army, and likewise withdrew from a small part of the Golan heights.
Dec - 21-29 1973 Middle East Peace Conference convened in Geneva, with Jordan, Egypt, SU, US & Israel attending (Syria refused). First objective is the disengagement of forces.
Jan 18 1974 Egypt-Israel Separation of Forces Agreement (Sinai I), opposed by Syria. UN Emergency Force takes up positions in the buffer zones established in Sinai; fully deployed by Mar. 3.
April 10, 1974 Golda Meir resigns as PM of Israel following popular protest over the Yom Kippur War. Yitzhak Rabin, former Chief of Staff of IDF and ambassador to US takes her place.
April 11 1974 Kiriat Shmona Massacre - PFLP-GC takes dozens of teenagers hostage in Qiryat Shmona, Israel, to demand the release of prisoners. IDF storms the building, but terrorists kill 19. Israeli reprisal raids on Southern Lebanon condemned by UN Security Council in SCR347 on April 24.
May 15, 1974 Ma'alot Massacre - PLO (PDFLP) gunmen took over a school in the northern Israeli village of Ma’alot, demand release of prisoners, killing 25 and wounding many others.
May 31, 1974

Syria-Israel disengagement agreement over the Golan, with Syria accepting SCR 338 (& thus 242) as a basis for peace, & Israel partially withdrawing to establish a demilitarized zone, with UN Disengagement Observer Force separating parties. Israel withdrew from Quneitra on 26 June, but Syria did not rebuild or repopulate the town.

June 1974 Twelfth Palestine National Council resolves that “the PLO will struggle by every means ... to liberate Palestinian land & establish the people’s national, independent ad fighting authority on every part of Palestinian land to be liberated." Israelis interpret this as staged liberation of Palestine. However, this was also widely portrayed later as meaning that a State in part of Palestine was acceptable to the PLO, eventually causing PFLP (George Habash) to leave the PLO on Sept. 26, forming the "refusal front." PFLP rejoined the PLO in 1980.
Oct 29, 1974 Rabat Summit - Arab League summit in Rabat declares that the PLO is the only legitimate representative of the Palestinian people. This makes it more difficult for Israel to conclude a peace treaty with Jordan on the basis of return of the West Bank. Hussein declares that he is no longer empowered to act for the Palestinians, and prevents possibility of negotiation with local Palestinians.
Nov 13 1974 Yasser Arafat speaks at UN General Assembly debate on Palestine, on invitation of Oct 14 (GAR3210; vote: 105-4), with his pistol showing. UNGA recognizes Palestinians’ right to sovereignty (GAR3236) and grants PLO observer status (GAR3237; 22Nov).
November 1975 UN General Assembly Resolution 3379 equates Zionism with racism. Harold H. Saunders tells house subcommittee that the Palestinian problem is in many ways the heart of the conflict, and that the US must seek partners who will recognize the relevant UN resolutions and engage them in dialog for peace.
June-July 1976 Palestinians hijacked an Air-France Air bus to Entebbe in Uganda. IDF commando units landed in Uganda, storm the plane and free most of the hostages.
Aug 13, 1976 Lebanese militias massacre over 2000 Palestinians in the Tel Al-Zaatar refugee camp, apparently with participation of Syrian troops. According to journalist Robert Fisk, the attack began when Yasser Arafat asked that the camps be considered a non-combat zone, and then ordered Fatah gunmen to open fire on Christian militia. Palestinians retaliated with a massacre of Christians in Damour.
June 20, 1977 Likud party and Begin government took office in Israel. Israeli settlement of the West Bank and Gaza was intensified following the rise of the Likud to power.
Nov. 20, 1977 Egyptian President Anwar Sadat came to Jerusalem, spoke in Israeli Knesset (Parliament).
Mar. 15, 1978 Israel invaded Lebanon (operation Litani) after the PLO hijacked a bus on the main Tel-Aviv to Haifa highway. UN resolution 425 of March 19, 1978 called for withdrawal of Israeli forces. Israel did not fulfill the terms of Resolution 425 until May 2000.
Sept. 17, 1978 Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Israeli PM Menachem Begin, meeting at Camp David under the auspices of US President Jimmy Carter, sign framework agreements for peace in the Middle East and peace between Egypt and Israel.
Mar 26, 1979 Peace treaty signed between Egypt and Israel.
June 7, 1981 Israel destroys Iraqi nuclear reactor in daring raid.
Oct. 6, 1981 Egyptian President Anwar Sadat is assassinated while on the reviewing stand of a victory parade.
April 29, 1982 Israel completes return of Sinai to Egypt under the peace agreement, including Yamit settlement.
June 3, 1982 Attempted assassination of Israeli Ambassador Shlomo Argov in London apparently by Abu Nidal faction, backed by Iraq. Large scale bombings by Israel in Lebanon especially on W.Beirut (4Jun). PLO send First rockets at towns in N Israel since Jul 81.
June 6, 1982 Massive Israeli invasion of Lebanon to fight PLO. . UN Security Council Resolution 509 demands that Israel withdraw all its military forces forthwith, but Israel advances rapidly to Beirut, surrounding the capital by 13 Jun. Israeli cabinet is split on the sudden expansion of the war, beyond the 40 KM limit originally declared by Sharon.
June 9, 1982 Syrian Soviet SAM radar destroyed by Israel, Israeli-Syrian armor engagements.
Summer, 1982 Foundation of the Lebanese Shi’ite Hizbulla Islamist terror group.
Aug. 22, 1982 PLO evacuation of Beirut. About 14,000 leave. PLO headquarters in Tunis. Evacuation complete Sept 1.
Aug 23, 1982 Bashir Jemayeel made President of Lebanon.
Sept. 14, 1982 Lebanese President-elect Bashir Gemayeel assassinated, by explosion of a bomb operated by Habib Tanious Shartouni, apparently an agent of Syrian intelligence. Amin Gemayeel, his brother was elected instead, Sept 21.
Sept. 15, 1982 Israeli invasion of West Beirut
Sept. 16-17, 1982 Lebanese Christian Phalange units under Elie Hobeika, allowed by Israeli forces to enter the Palestinian refugee camps of Sabra and Shatilla, massacre between 400 and 800 Palestinian civilians. Israel Gen. Yaron and others overheard incriminating conversations between Phalange officers but no action was taken by Israel to stop the massacre.
24 Sept, 1982 Peace Now movement holds record demonstration in Israel (~300,000), demanding end to war, commission of inquiry for Sabra and Shatilla
Nov 11, 1982 Israeli military headquarters in Tyre destroyed in an explosion, killing 75 Israelis and 16 of their prisoners.
Feb 8, 1983 Israeli Kahan commission found Ariel Sharon and others indirectly responsible for allowing the massacre in Sabra and Shatilla.
April 18, 1983 Hizbulla suicide bomber destroyed the American Embassy in Beirut, killing over 60 people.
May 17, 1983 Israel and Lebanon conclude an abortive non-belligerency agreement.
Sept.3, 1983 Israel began partial withdrawal from Lebanon.
Oct. 23, 1983 Hizbulla suicide bomber destroyed the US Marine compound in Beirut, killing 241.
Sept. 20, 1984 Hizbulla suicide bomber destroyed the rebuilt American Embassy in Beirut, killing 25.
June 1985 Israel unity government, headed by Shimon Peres, orders withdrawal from most of conquered Lebanese territory.
Nov. 1985 Jonathan Pollard arrested by US authorities for spying for Israel. He was ultimately sentenced to life imprisonment.
Dec 8, 1987 First Intifadeh - Stone-throwing Palestinian teens led by local groups took on the Israeli occupation, attacking Israeli soldiers relentlessly. The triggering incident may have been the death of four Palestinian workers in a road accident with an Israeli vehicle.
Jan. 1988 Foundation of the Hamas Islamic Brotherhood. Hamas published their Charter in August 1988, based on the forged Protocols of the Elders of Zion, and advocating destruction of Israel.
Nov. 15, 1988 Palestine National Council of the PLO declare a Palestinian state in absentia - See Palestinian Declaration of Independence
May 14, 1989 Israeli Peace Plan of May 14, 1989, calls for a negotiating process with the Palestinians very similar to the one actually implemented by the Oslo accords.
Oct 30, 1991 Madrid Peace Conference for peaceful resolution of the Middle East Conflict.
June 23, 1992 Labor party leader and former General Yitzhak Rabin, elected Prime Minister of Israel
Sept. 13, 1993 Oslo Declaration of Principles - Israel and PLO agree to mutual recognition, Yasser Arafat and PLO will be allowed to return to Gaza. PLO and Palestinian leadership renounce violence and use of terrorism, and agree to revise the PLO charter to remove chapters referring to destruction of Israel. Over the next, years, Israel withdraws from a small area (Area A) that is given to Palestinian sovereignty, a larger area (Area B) is given to Palestinian civil control only, while a third area of the West Bank and Gaza strip remains under total Israeli control. Israel does not dismantle any settlements, and the number of settlers and new settlements increases considerably.
Feb 25, 1994 Settler Baruch Goldstein opens fire on Muslims praying in the Tomb of Abraham mosque in Hebron, killing 30. This massacre formed the excuse for numerous terrorist acts by Hamas and other groups. Following the bombing, the Israel government placed restrictions on Hebron's Arab population and closed the Tomb to visitors for a an extended period. Goldstein's grave became a shrine for right-wing settlers. The shrine was dismantled by the Israeli government in 2,000.
April, 1994 Hamas carries out suicide bombings in Israeli towns of Afula and Hadera, killing 13, wounding 80.
May 1994 Yasser Arafat arrives in Gaza.
Oct 19, 1994 Hamas suicide bombing on a Tel Aviv bus kills 22, wounds 40.
July 24, 1994 Hamas suicide bomber blows up a Dan bus in Tel Aviv.
Oct. 26, 1994 Peace treaty between Jordan and Israel.
May, 1995 Israeli-Syrian peace negotiations seem close to conclusion.
Sept 28, 1995 Oslo Interim Agreement signed.
Nov. 4, 1995 Israeli PM Yitzhak Rabin assassinated by right-wing Israeli fanatic Yigal Amir.
Jan 5, 1996 Israeli security service assassinates Palestinian terrorist Yihyeh Ayash, 'The Engineer," responsible for the death of over 60 Israelis. Ayash was lionized by Palestinians as a martyr and the PNA named a square after him in Jericho.
Feb. 25, 1996 Hamas suicide bomber blows up a No. 18 bus near Jerusalem's central bus station, killing 26 people and wounding 48 others. Less than an hour later, a second Hamas suicide bomb explodes at a soldiers' hitchhiking station near Ashkelon, killing one and injuring 31 others. The two attacks are said to be in retaliation for the slaying in Gaza of Yehiya Ayash.
March 3, 1996 A Hamas suicide bomber blows up a bus on Jerusalem's Jaffa Road, killing 19 people and leaving at least 9 wounded. The attack takes place on the same No. 18 bus line and almost at the same time as the previous week's attack.
March 4, 1996 Dizengoff Center Bombing - A suicide bomb is detonated in Tel Aviv's Dizengoff Center, killing 13, including children, and wounding at least 130 on the eve of Purim (anniversary of Goldstein massacre). Hamas claims responsibility.
June, 1996 Right-Wing Likud leader Benjamin Nethanyahu elected Prime Minister in Israel, replacing Shimon Peres.
Sept, 1996 "Al-Aqsa tunnel riots - Arab sources spread the false rumor that a gate opened in an underground tunnel tourist attraction by the Israeli government, endangered the foundations of the Al-Aqsa mosque. This caused several days of rioting and numerous casualties.
Jan 18, 1997 Israel and Palestinians reach agreement on Israeli redeployment in the West-Bank city of Hebron
March 21, 1997 Cafe Apropos Bombing - A Hamas suicide bomber detonates an explosion at the Cafe Apropos in central Tel Aviv, killing 3 Israelis and wounding 47 others.
July 30, 1997 Two suicide bombers strike in the Mahane Yehuda open-air market in Jerusalem, claiming at least 12 victims and wounding at least 150 others. Hamas and Islamic Jihad claim responsibility.
Sept, 1997 Israeli agents bungled an attempt to kill Hamas terrorist leader Khaled Mashaal in Jordan (Sept 26). To placate Jordanian public opinion, Israel subsequently released Hamas leader Sheikh Ahmed Yassin from jail.
Oct. 1998 Wye River Plantation talks result in an agreement for Israeli redeployment and release of political prisoners and renewed Palestinian commitment to correct its violations of the Oslo accords including excess police force, illegal arms and incitement in public media and education.
May 17, 1999 Israel elects Labor party leader and Former General Ehud Barak as Prime Minister in a landslide. Barak promises rapid progress toward peace.
Jan. 2000 Israeli-Syrian peace negotiations resumed by PM Ehud Barak.
March, 2000 Israeli-Syrian peace negotiations fail when Hafez Assad rejects an Israeli offer relayed by US President Clinton in Geneva.
May 2000 Israeli withdrawal from Lebanon to international border is completed after many years of harassment by Hizbullah guerillas. UN declares Israel is compliant with Resolution 425, but the Hizbullah continues to harass Israeli positions, kidnapping three Israeli soldiers later in the summer.
May, 2000 Plan to turn over Abu Dis (Jerusalem suburb) to Palestinians is scuttled after Palestinians riot and Palestinian police open fire on Israelis.
June 10, 2000 Hafez Assad, President of Syria, dies. He is quickly replaced by his son, Bashar.
July, 2000 Israeli PM Barak, US President Clinton and Palestinian Chairman Yasser Arafat meet at Camp David in a failed attempt to hammer out a final settlement.
Sept. 28, 2000 Palestinians initiated riots after Israeli opposition leader Ariel Sharon visited the Temple Mount, which is also the location of the Haram as Sharif, holy to Muslims. Violence was apparently encouraged by Fatah Tanzim, as admitted by Marwan Barghouti. Violence escalated rapidly from rock throwing to machine gun and mortar fire, suicide bombings and lethal road ambushes, including some incidents instigated by settlers against Palestinians. Israelis killed 15 Israeli Arabs in riots in September/October 2000, and over 2,000 Palestinians in retaliatory raids thereafter. Palestinians kill over 700 Israelis. Violence continues for over a year [to present - March 2003].
Dec, 2000 Talks begun at Taba continuing to January 2001 in different venues, end inconclusively.
Feb 6, 2001 Right-wing Likud leader Ariel Sharon elected Prime Minister in Israel replacing Ehud Barak and promising "peace and security."
April, 2001 Mitchell commission recommendations for restoration of peace, return to the negotiating table.
June 1, 2001 Dolphinarium Discotheque in Tel Aviv hit by suicide bomb, killing 20, including many teenagers. Islamic Jihad and Palestine Hizbulla both claim the bombing.
August 9, 2001 Sbarro pizzeria suicide bombing in Jerusalem by Islamic Jihad movement kills 15, wounds 130.
Aug 27. 2001 Israel assassinates Abu Ali Mustafa, Secretary General of the PFLP (Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine)
Oct., 17, 2001 Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine assassinates Israeli tourism minister Rehav’am Ze’evi, known for extreme right-wing views, in retaliation for killing of Abu Ali Mustafa. After Palestine National Authority refuses to take effective action, Israeli troops enter Palestinian areas in the West Bank
Jan 3, 2002 Israel captures Karine-A carrying a boatload of illegal arms bound for Palestinian Authority as US envoy Anthony Zinni arrives to try to mediate a settlement.
March 2002 Midst mounting violence, Saudi Prince Abdullah announces a peace plan, according to which Israel would withdraw from the occupied territories in return for Arab recognition.
March-April 2002 In retaliation for a series of suicide bombings, Israel mounts operation "Defensive Wall" in the West Bank, arrests Palestinian leaders and particularly Marwan Barghouti, imprisoning PNA Chairman Arafat in the "Mukata" compound in Ramalah and besieges militants in the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem. During the operation, about 50 people, including at least some civilians, were killed in the Jenin refugee camp, prompting charges of a massacre by Palestinians. A proposed UN investigation of the alleged massacres is abandoned after Israel refuses to cooperate. From objective reports, it appears that about 22 noncombatant civilians were killed in Jenin, either wrongfully and intentionally by Israeli troops, or when bulldozers crushed houses in the belief they were empty, or when booby-trapped houses exploded and fell in on their occupants.
May 2002 End of sieges in Mukata; Church of Nativity. Militants in church of nativity exiledabroad. Wanted men in Mukata jailed in Jericho. Head of PFLP allegedly coordinated a suicide attack from his cell in Jericho.
May 30, 2002 PNA Chairman Arafat, under pressure for reform, signs the 2002: PNA Basic Law that was passed several years ago by the PLC.
June 24, 2002 Controversial speech by US President Bush calls for Israeli withdrawal and Palestinian state, but insists the PNA must first be reformed and current leaders replaced. Israel moves to reoccupy the entire West Bank, with the exception of Jericho.
July 23 2002 Israel assassinates Saleh Shehadeh, head of Hamas Izzeldin-El Kassam armed brigades responsible for numerous terror attacks.
Nov 3, 2002 Israel government unstable as resignations of Labor party ministers become official.
Jan, 2003 Cairo conference of Palestinian groups, first in 20 years. Conference fails to agree on cease fire offer to Israel. Islamist movements say PLO no longer represents the Palestinian people.
Jan 5, 2003 Double suicide bombing in Tel Aviv kills 23, prompting increased action of IDF against Hamas.
Jan 28, 2003 Elections in Israel give wide margin (40 seats) to right wing Likud party, returning PM Ariel Sharon for another term.
Feb, 2003 Israel initiates a series of incursions in the Gaza strip and Nablus with numerous civilian casualties beginning at the end of February.
Mar 5, 2003 Hamas suicide bombing of Haifa bus kills 17. Qassam rocket fire from Gaza on Sderot brings Israeli reoccupation of parts of Gaza around Jebalya refugee camp.
March 6, 2003 Qassam rocket fire from Gaza on Sderot brings Israeli reoccupation of parts of Gaza around Jebalya refugee camp.
March 10, 2003 Central Council of the PLO meets in Ramalla and approves Chairman Arafat's proposal to nominate a Prime Minister. His nominee, Abu Mazen is also approved. The Council also condemns violence against all civilians. The appointment of a PM is due to Israeli and US pressure to reform the PNA and provide leadership other than Arafat, who is considered untrustworthy.
April 24, 2003 Bowing to international pressure, Yasser Arafat allows the nomination of Mahmoud Abbas (Abu Mazen) as new Palestinian PM. The Quartet (US, Britain, Russia and Spain) hope that he will institute reforms. Israeli government backs Abu-Mazen, promises concessions.
April 29, 2003 Abu Mazen (Mahmoud Abbas) appointed Palestinian PM & vows reform, but Arafat maneuvers to retain control. Violence continues. US released updated road map on April 30
June 4, 2003 Aqaba Summit - Abu Mazen and Ariel Sharon vow to stop violence, end occupation according to the road map. Hamas and Islamic Jihad vow to continue violence. Fatah, Hamas and Islamic Jihad joined in killing four Israeli soldiers in Gaza (June 8) despite the call to end violence from Fatah leaders.
June 10-11, 2003 Failed Israeli assassination attempt on Hamas leader Ahmed Rantissi (June 10) and Hamas suicide attack that kills 15 in Jerusalem (June 11) jeopardize the future of the road map.
Aug 20, 2003 Hamas suicide bombing in a Jerusalem bus claims 21 lives
August 21, 2003 Israel, vowing that all Hamas leaders were now targets, assassinates Hamas leader Ismail Abu Shanab. Others killed in widespread operations in the West bank; Arafat moves to replace Abbas appointee Mohamed Dahlan as security chief in Gaza and to weaken Abbas.
Sept 6, 2003 Mahmud Abbas resigns; Failed Israeli assassination attempt on Hamas "spiritual leader" Ahmed Yassin, who is aged and crippled.
Sept 8, 2003 Yasser Arafat and Fatah/PLO name Ahmed Queia ("Abu Ala") as PM to replace Mahmud Abbas.
Sept 10, 2003 Twin suicide bombings kill 15 in Israel; Israel moves against against buildings surrounding Yasser Arafat's Mukata compound on the following day. US official Condoleeza Rice insists that the Road Map is "still on the table."
Oct 4, 2003 Palestinian Islamic Jihad Suicide bomber kills 20 in Arab-Jewish owned Haifa restaurant.
Oct 5, 2003 Israeli jets strike a camp in Syria allegedly used for training Palestinian terrorists. The strike gets US approval.
Oct 9, 2003 Palestinian PM designate Ahmed Qurei submits his resignation to Chairman Yasser Arafat because of differences of opinion regarding the mandate and composition of his government's cabinet. Increasing rumors of Arafat's illness attributed variously to cardiac problems or stomach cancer.
Nov 12, 2003 Palestinian PM Ahmed Qurei forms a government after a long period of negotiations, pledging to end terror and chaos in the Palestine Authority
Nov 19, 2003 UN Security Council passes resolution 1515 in support of the roadmap for peace.
Nov 24, 2003 Israeli PM Sharon announces Disengagement Plan for unilateral withdrawal of Israeli forces if the roadmap fails to produce an end to terrorism.
Dec 2003 Geneva Accord peace plan of Yossi Beilin and Yasser Abed Rabbo officially launched in Geneva (it was leaked at at the beginning of November). December 8 - UN General Assembly meets in Emergency Session to adopt Resolution ES-10/14 asking the International Court of Justice to rule on the legality of the Israeli security barrier.
Feb 24, 2004 International Court of Justice begins hearings on the legality of the Israeli security barrier, Israel and Palestinians use the hearings as a platform for demonstrations about terror and the occupation.
March 22, 2004 IDF assassinates Hamas leader Ahmed Yassin.
April 14, 2004 Israeli PM Sharon meets with US President George Bush, gets letter supporting disengagement plan
April 17, 2004 IDF assassinates Hamas leader Abdel Aziz Rantissi.
May 2004 Ariel Sharon's disengagement plan turned down in Likud party vote May 2; After 6 Israeli soldiers are killed when their APC is blown up in Gaza, Israel launches operation Rainbow to stop infiltration of arms across the Egypt-Gaza border in Rafah and to widen the Philadelphi patrol road. Demolition of houses and killing of over 40 Palestinians including noncombatants evokes world protest; plans to widen the corridor by demolishing houses meet legal snags and international protest; Fatah-Tanzim leader Marwan Barghouti found guilty on 5 counts of murder; Arab summit in Tunis meets after postponement; Sharon proposes new disengagement plan.
July 9, 2004 International court of Justice (ICJ) rules that the Israeli security barrier violates international law and must be torn down. UN GA later votes to order Israel to dismantle the barrier. Israel announces that it will ignore the ruling, but makes changes in the barrier route according to the rulings of the Israeli High Court.
July 12-19, 2004 UN Envoy Terje Roede Larsen slammed by Palestinian leaders for issuing a report that claims there is chaos in the Palestinian areas. Fighting between Fatah factions breaks out in Gaza, amidst kidnappings of Palestinians and foreigners.
Aug 31, 2004 16 Israelis were killed in a suicide attack on a Beersheba bus. This was the first successful attack in many months. Another attack in the French Hill section of Jerusalem on September 22 killed one. During this period Israeli troops continued to operate in the West bank and Gaza, catching would-be terrorists, but also inflicting many casualties among civilians.
Sept 26, 2004 Hamas leader Izz El-Deen Al-Sheikh Khalil is assassinated by a car bomb in Damascus by Mossad agents. Hamas spokesmen announce they will consider attacking Israeli targets outside Israel. Under pressure from US, Syria forced many leaders of terrorist groups to leave Damascus.
Sept 29, 2004 Qassam rockets launched from Gaza kill two children in the Israeli town of Sderoth. Israel launches operation "Days of Repentance," occupying a large area in northern Gaza, demolishing houses and killing over 80 Palestinians by October 7.
Oct 7, 2004 Multiple suicide attacks in the Sinai desert against Egyptian tourist areas frequented by Israelis including the Taba Hilton hotel and Ras al-Shaitan (Ras Satan). About 27 persons killed, mostly Israelis. Initial reports attributed the attack variously to Al Qaida and to Palestinian groups, though Palestinian groups claimed no involvement.
Oct 25-26, 2004 Israel Knesset approves disengagement plan calling for withdrawal from Gaza with the support of Labor and Yahad leftist parties. Ruling rightist Likud members and NRP demand a referendum.
Nov 11, 2004 Yasser Arafat dies. Abu Mazen and Abu Ala share his powers. Abu Mazen is selected as the Fatah candidate for head of the PNA and will have little serious opposition after Marwan Barghouthi, who had announced his candidacy, drops out of the race in December.
Dec. 5, 2004 Egypt releases Azzam Azzam, Israeli Druze jailed in Egypt for 8 years on espionage charges.
Dec 12, 2004 An explosion destroys an Israeli Joint Verification Team (JVT) terminal near the Egyptian-Gaza border, within Israel. Five Israeli soldiers killed. The explosion was carried out by tunneling from the Gaza side and planting a huge explosive charge. Hamas and the Fatah Eagles take responsibility. The attack was not condemned by the PNA.
Dec 14, 2004 Egypt, US and Israel sign a three way trade agreement that allows Egypt to establish Qualified Industrial Zones (QIZ) with a small share (about 11%) of Israeli participation, with the output of those ventures exported to the US free of tariffs.
Jan 9, 2005 Mahmoud Abbas elected President of the Palestinian National Authority.
Jan 10, 2005 Ariel Sharon forms unity government with Labor and United Torah Judaism parties in Israel.
Feb 8, 2005 Sharm El Sheikh Summit Conference - Israeli PM Ariel Sharon, Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas, President Mubarak of Egypt and King Abdullah II of Jordan meet in Sharm El Sheikh. Abbas and Sharon announce an end to the violence. Israel will release over 900 Palestinian prisoners and withdraw from Palestinian cities. Jordan and Egypt will return ambassadors to Israel. The Intifada is deemed to be over.
Feb 20, 2005 Israeli cabinet approves plan for implementing disengagement.
Feb 25, 2005 Suicide bombing by Islamic Jihad kills 5 in Tel Aviv. Israel freezes planned handover of Palestinian towns.
Mar 1, 2005 London Conference hosted by Great Britain aims at organizing Palestinian security forces and getting financial backing for the Palestinian Authority.
Mar 16 Cairo Conference - Palestinian militant groups agree to a tahediyeh - a lull in the fighting. Hamas and Islamic Jihad will join the PLO. Hamas will participate in May elections for the Palestine Legislative Council. Israel withdrew from Jericho and a week later it withdrew from Jericho.

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