European Union Definition of Antisemitism (EU definition)

antisemitism, racism and hatred of Jews

Antisemitism Reference Center

European Union Definition of Antisemitism (EU definition)

Definition of Antisemitism

Source: European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights

Also available from the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights is the Summary overview of Antisemitism in the European Union (Dec 2006)

This document has been copied here to allow people to copy and past parts of the definition as needed in order to clarify when debate and discussion has cross the line from free speech to hate speech. In the EU hate speech is not protected, it is in fact a crime.

The EU's Definition of Antisemitism

The purpose of this document is to provide a practical guide for identifying incidents, collecting data, and supporting the implementation and enforcement of legislation dealing with antisemitism.

Working definition: ``Antisemitism is a certain perception of Jews, which may be expressed as hatred toward Jews. Rhetorical and physical manifestations of antisemitism are directed toward Jewish or non­Jewish individuals and/or their property, toward Jewish community institutions and religious facilities.''

In addition, such manifestations could also target the state of Israel, conceived as a Jewish collectivity. Antisemitism frequently charges Jews with conspiring to harm humanity, and it is often used to blame Jews for ``why things go wrong.'' It is expressed in speech, writing, visual forms and action, and employs sinister stereotypes and negative character traits.

Contemporary examples of antisemitism in public life, the media, schools, the workplace, and in the religious sphere could, taking into account the overall context, include, but are not limited to:

    Calling for, aiding, or justifying the killing or harming of Jews in the name of a radical ideology or an extremist view of religion.
  • Making mendacious, dehumanizing, demonizing, or stereotypical allegations about Jews as such or the power of Jews as collective - such as, especially but not exclusively, the myth about a world Jewish conspiracy or of Jews controlling the media, economy, government or other societal institutions.
  • Accusing Jews as a people of being responsible for real or imagined wrongdoing committed by a single Jewish person or group, or even for acts committed by non­Jews.
  • Denying the fact, scope, mechanisms (e.g. gas chambers) or intentionality of the genocide of the Jewish people at the hands of National Socialist Germany and its supporters and accomplices during World War II (the Holocaust).
  • Accusing the Jews as a people, or Israel as a state, of inventing or exaggerating the Holocaust.
  • Accusing Jewish citizens of being more loyal to Israel, or to the alleged priorities of Jews worldwide, than to the interests of their own nations.

Examples of the ways in which antisemitism manifests itself with regard to the state of Israel taking into account the overall context could include:

  • Denying the Jewish people their right to self­determination, e.g., by claiming that the existence of a State of Israel is a racist endeavor.
  • Applying double standards by requiring of it a behavior not expected or demanded of any other democratic nation.
  • Using the symbols and images associated with classic antisemitism (e.g., claims of Jews killing Jesus or blood libel) to characterize Israel or Israelis.
  • Drawing comparisons of contemporary Israeli policy to that of the Nazis.
  • Holding Jews collectively responsible for actions of the state of Israel.

However, criticism of Israel similar to that leveled against any other country cannot be regarded as antisemitic. Antisemitic acts are criminal when they are so defined by law (for example, denial of the Holocaust or distribution of antisemitic materials in some countries). Criminal acts are antisemitic when the targets of attacks, whether they are people or property---such as buildings, schools, places of worship and cemeteries---are selected because they are, or are perceived to be, Jewish or linked to Jews. Antisemitic discrimination is the denial to Jews of opportunities or services available to others and is illegal in many countries.



Related articles

More articles on antisemitism:

Under attack in a virtual world

By Andre Oboler, PresenTense Magazine, Febuary 2010.

Report from the Working Group on Online Antisemitism

By Andre Oboler and David Matas (Eds), The Global Forum to COmbat Antisemitism, December 2009, Jerusalem.

Facebook, Holocaust Denial, and Anti-Semitism 2.0

By Andre Oboler, The Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, 15 September 2009. This is the detailed report (published online in August 2009).

'Facebook doesn't bar hateful content against Jews'

By Elan Miller, Jerusalem Post, 27 August 2009

Holocaust Denial: Yes Facebook, it is Hate Speech

By Andre Oboler, Z-Word Blog, 27 August 2009.

Facebook gives hatred a hand

By Andre Oboler, Comment is Free at the Guardian, 13 July 2009

Facebook refuses to ban all Holocaust-denial groups

By Chantal Abitbol, The Australian Jewish News, 15 May 2009, pg 8

Antisemitism and the rise of a new world order? Obama’s inauguration

By Clemens Heni, Zionism On The Web, Febuary 7, 2009

Iran, Holocaust denial and PressTV

By Andre Oboler, Zionism On The Web Special Report, December 4 2008

Expert Warns on Internet antisemitism

By Sharon Berger, The Australian Jewish News, October 31 2008, pg 4

10 Questions for Dr Andre Oboler

The Australian Jewish News, October 31 2008, Life pg 16

Facebook and Google Earth: Anti-Semitism in Web 2.0

By Christoph Gunkel and translated into English by Ricarda Krenn. Originaly Published in German as Christoph Gunkel, Facebook und Google Earth: Antisemitismus im Web 2.0, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (FAZ), Germany, 14 October 2008.

Goldsmiths, Gaza and the Warsaw Ghetto

By Jonathan Hoffman, Open Letter, Nov 13th 2008

"But I am a Zionist!"

By Clemens Heni, Zionism On The Web, Nov 3rd 2008

Good news in the fight against online hate

By Andre Oboler, Zionism On The Web, Sept 11, 2008. Original Draft (in English) of "Hatred and Antisemitism Online", Agencia Judia Noticias

Hatred and Antisemitism Online

By Andre Oboler, Agencia Judia Noticias (Jewish News Agency - Argentina), Sept 4 2008

Online Antisemitism 2.0, Social Antisemitism on the Social Web

By Dr Andre Oboler, The Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, March / April 2008

Anti-Semitism 2.0 Going Largely Unchallenged

By Tamar Snyder, The New York Jewish Week, Febuary 20 2008

A false prospectus on campus

By Dr Andre Oboler, The Guardian, Comment is Free, February 15 2008

Facebook antisemitism: Facing the Facebook Dilemma

By Dr Andre Oboler, Jerusalem Post, 6th February 2008

Abusing the Holocaust

By Prof Gerald Steinberg, NGO-Monitor

UK's NUS accepts EU Definition of Antisemitism

By Andre Oboler, A ZOTW Special

European Union Definition of Antisemitism

This is the definition used throughout Europe by law enforcement

Antisemitism or anti-semitism?

By Andre Oboler, a ZOTW Special

Where Europe Fails

By Prof Gerald Steinberg, Jerusalem Post, 9 May 2007

Hitler's Legacy: Islamic Antisemitism in the Middle East

By Dr Matthias Küntzel, a German political scientist and author

The New Antisemitism

By Sir Jonathan Sacks, Chief Rabbi of the British Commonwealth of Nations. Read comments or add your own on the New Antisemitism forum.

What's New In Anti-Semitism?

By Azmi Bishara (Arab-Israeli MK), Dar Al-Hayat, November 20, 2003

The U.N. discovers the cause of anti-Semitism: Jews

By ANNE BAYEFSKY, Opinion Journal, November 18, 2004

Aren't Arabs Semites too?

Analysis of the propoganda that Arabs are semites too and hence can't be antisemitic

Language as a Tool against Jews and Israel

By Prof. Georges-Elia Sarfati, a French linguistics expert

Muslim antisemitism and anti-Zionism explained

By Dr Denis M. MacEoin, an expert in Islamic studies

Top articles in the Antisemitism Forum Archive



You can visit our full collection for more articles on Zionism, Israel and Palestine

External article links

Arabs and antisemitism

The Wikipedia article on Arabs and antisemitism

"Jew"

A Zionism Israel Information Center article on antisemitism and the Jews

External sites about antisemitism

The Coordination Forumfor Countering Antisemitism

The Anti-Defamation League

JAFI resources on Antisemitism

Middle East Antisemitism

International Center for the Study of Antisemitism At the Hebrew University of Jerusalem

Key references

The following may help you identify antisemitism and other types of racism

EU definition of antisemitism

Used by law enforcement throughout Europe

Behind much criticism of Israel is a thinly veiled hatred of Jews

Emanuele Ottolenghi, in The Guardian on Saturday November 29, 2003

A New Antisemitism

Chief Rabbi Sir Jonathan Sacks, June 2002

Blurring the line

Fair critisism or antisemitism? By Abraham H. Foxman, National Director of the Anti-Defamation League (the ADL), in Haaretz on April 4, 2004

Antisemitism in 3-D

Differentiating legitimate criticism of Israel from the so-called new anti-Semitism. By Natan Sharansky in Jerusalem Post, on February 23, 2004

Anti-Zionism

What is Anti-Zionism?

Disagreeing with the policies of the Israeli government is in and of itself neither Antisemitic nor Anti-Zionist.

Even outside of this Anti-Zionism is not always Antisemitism, but many of those who claim to be anti-Zionist are in fact in fact peddling re-badged Antisemitism.

Our reference center can help you understand Anti-Zionism

Features include:

Ads by Google





Zionism On The Web Directory

Learn more about this site at our Zionism Main page. Comment and add your thoughts to our Zionism and Israel discussion forums. See our Resource Centers on the British Academic Boycott of Israel, and the Anti-Zionism and Antisemitism Resource Center, and the special section on the Palestinian state. Learn more from our articles on Zionism in the commentary collection. Extend your learning through out links about Zionism or at our Zionism links directory.


External links on Israel and Zionism

If you found this site helpful, please tell others about Zionism and Israel on the Web and link to us at http://www.zionismontheweb.org

We'll be happy to add a link to our directory for any site on Israel, Zionism, the Middle East, or Judaism that links to us. You can add your site and if you have a link to us we'll aprove it. You can aslo e-mail us at for an additional link on our links page.

We also work closely with webmaster at the following sites:
Information about Israel and Zionism at http://www.zionism-israel.com

The Zionism Pages at http://www.zionism.netfirms.com

Zionism, Israel and me at www.zionism.me.uk

Recommended sources on Israel

Israel is a small, high tech, democratic country in the Middle East. It's capital Jerusalem is central to Judaism and highly important to Christianity and Islam. We recommend the following sites:

Wikipedia article about Israel - A comprehensive article including the history of Israel
Israel - Table of contents at the Jewish Virtual Library

US Library of congress & CIA World Fact Book on Israel
Main article on Israel - US Library of Congress
The Israeli Parliment (the Knesset) - US Library of Congress
Government and Politics of Israel - US Library of Congress
World Facts: Israel

Israel today - beyond the conflict
Virtual Jerusalem
Israel21C - A focus beyond the conflict
Beyond Images




(c) Zionism On The Web, 2005-2006.
You may reproduce most of our content on your own site provided you include a link back to us. This includes articles where we've received explicit permission from the author both to republish at Zionism On The Web and to pass this permission on to others. If you have articles on Zionism or Israel that you'd like us to share with others, please e-mail the content address below. If you have copyright questions please e-mail the webmaster. Thank you to all who have contributed their time and resources to ZionismOnTheWeb.org - Andre Oboler (Chief Executive) and the team at Zionism On The Web.

Mail the webmaster at: Please mail ZIONISTGUYS at the domain ZIONISMONTHEWEB.ORG
Mail potential content to: Please mail CONTENT at the domain ZIONISMONTHEWEB.ORG